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# An overview of arrays in Ada 2012

Arrays are one of the foundational programming constructs. Ada has rich mechanisms to declare arrays, but these might not be obvious for engineers coming from other programming languages. This post will describe the possible ways to declare array types in Ada 2012.

## Introduction

The basic form to declare arrays in Ada looks like this:

type My_New_Array_Type is array (0 .. 5) of My_Array_Element_Type;


Here we declare a new array type called My_New_Array_Type, which is an array of 5 elements of the definite type My_Array_Element_Type. The indexes of the array go from 0 to 5, inclusive.

The bounds of an array don’t have to be constant; we can control them by using other identifiers on the scope. For example:

Start: Integer := 0;
Stop: Integer := 5;
type My_New_Array_Type is array (Start .. Stop) of Integer;


## Instantiation

Keep in mind that the type keyword introduces a new type of array, but in order to make use of it, we need to instantiate it:

type My_Array is array (1 .. 5) of Integer;
X: My_Array;


At this point, we can access the elements of X by using statements such as X(1) and X(5). Note that when instantiating an array, its values are not defined (unless we use the Default_Component_Value aspect), and referencing such elements will result in at least a compiler warning.

We can set a default value during instantiation by using aggregates. For example:

type My_Array is array (1 .. 3) of Integer;


We can manually declare values for each of the elements:

X: My_Array := (5, 6, 7);


We can also use named arguments:

X: My_Array := (1 => 5, 2 => 6, 3 => 7);


Including ranges:

X: My_Array := (1 .. 3 => 0);


We can use the others keyword:

X: My_Array := (1 => 5, others => 0);


And we can pass the same values to elements that are not necessarily within a same range by using the | operator:

X: My_Array := (1 | 3 => 0, others => 1);


Finally, we can use <> to let elements take their default values.

X: My_Array := (1 => 5, others => <>);


## Index Types

Ada allows the user to set a discrete index type without static nor dynamic invariants when declaring arrays. For example, we can decide to use the Long_Integer type to index our array, which we can declare as follows:

type Custom_Indexed_Array is array (Long_Integer range 0 .. 5) of Integer;


Note that we needed to prefix the bounds declaration with the intended index type and the range keyword.

We can omit the range declaration if we’re using a subtype of any discrete type:

type My_Index is range 0 .. 20;
type My_Array is array (My_Index) of Integer;


Finally, we can use the same mechanism to index an array using an enumeration type:

type My_Enum is (Foo, Bar, Baz);
type Enum_Array is array (My_Enum) of Integer;


And given a instance X: Enum_Array, we can access its elements as X(Foo), X(Bar), and X(Baz).

We can further constrain the enumeration type if we want to leave off, lets say, the Baz element.

type Enum_Array is array (My_Enum range Foo .. Bar) of Integer;


Note that if we omit the index type, then it defaults to Integer.

## Definite vs Indefinite

Array types can be either definite or indefinite. Definite array types are the ones where their bounds are clearly defined in the declaration, like the examples we’ve been seeing before.

Indefinite array types, on the other side, don’t have defined bounds, so we have to set them when instantiating or subtyping such types. Consider this example:

type My_Array is array (Positive range <>) of Integer;


We read the compound symbol <> as “box.” You can think of it as a wildcard.

Given the indefinite array type My_Array, we can pass the bounds at instantiation like this:

X: My_Array(1 .. 5);


Or we can choose to subtype My_Array:

subtype My_Array_5 is My_Array(1 .. 5);


At which point My_Array_5 is a definite array type that we can instantiate as usual.

Finally, the bounds of an indefinite array type can be implicitly defined when providing a default value:

X: My_Array := (1, 2, 3, 4, 5);


Here, Given the default value has 5 elements, then the range implicitly becomes 1 .. 5.

## Anonymous Arrays

Ada supports anonymous arrays. The only differente is that we don’t need to write a separate type declaration, but we need to move such declaration to the instantiation statement.

X: array (Positive range 1 .. 5) of Integer;


## Access Element Types

An array can hold aliased (elements that can be pointed to) and access elements (elements that point to other elements). We can do this by prefixing the element type with the aliased or access keywords. For example:

type My_Aliased_Array is array (Positive range 1 .. 5) of aliased Integer;
type My_Access_Array is array (Positive range 1 .. 5) of access Integer;


## Multi-dimensional Arrays

Ada supports multi-dimensional arrays of a single element type. We can declare a simple definite two-dimensional array of integers as:

type My_Multi_Dimensional_Array is
array (Positive range 1 .. 5, Positive range 1 .. 5) of Integer;


Given X: My_Multi_Dimensional_Array, we can access an element by doing something like X(0, 5).

Note that each of the range definitions may use different bounds, and even different index element types:

type My_Enum is (Foo, Bar, Baz);
type My_Multi_Dimensional_Array is
array (My_Enum range Foo .. Bar, Positive range 1 ..5) of Integer;


We can create indefinite multi-dimensional arrays, but keep in mind that all bounds must be indefinite, and that we have to set them all at instantiation:

type My_Multi_Dimensional_Array is
array (Positive range <>, Positive range <>) of Integer;
X: My_Multi_Dimensional_Array(1 .. 5, 1 .. 3)


Finally, we can use aggregates to assign a set of values to a multi-dimensional array. For example, given:

type My_Enum is (Foo, Bar, Baz);
type My_Multi_Dimensional_Array is
array (My_Enum, Positive range 1 .. 3) of Integer;


We can do:

X: My_Multi_Dimensional_Array := (Foo => (1, 2, 3),
Bar => (2, 3, 4),
Baz => (3, 4, 5));


## Attributes

### Length

We can use the Length attribute to get the size of an array. This attribute accepts an optional number argument to get the size of a dimension of a multi-dimensional array. For example Multi_Array'Length(1).

### First & Last

We can use the First and Last attributes to get the lower and upper bounds of an array, respectively. Like Length, these attributes take an optional number argument to fetch the bounds of multi-dimensional arrays.

### Range

Given array X, X'Range is a shortcut for X'First .. X'Last. We can pass an optional number argument, so something like X'Range(1) translates to X'First(1) .. X'Last(1).

## Looping

Ada supports two variations of the well-known for construct available in other programming languages: for in and for of.

The for in construct allows you to loop over the indexes of an array, and requires a range, such as the one returned by the Range attribute, or a hardcoded one. For example, given an array called My_Array, we can loop through all its elements like this:

for Index in My_Array'Range loop
-- Do something with My_Array(Index)
end loop;


Ada supports reverse looping out of the box, so we can also loop through My_Array in reverse by adding the reverse keyword before the range:

for Index in reverse My_Array'Range loop
-- Do something with My_Array(Index)
end loop;


Finally, Ada 2012 provides the for of loop, which is a neat variation that hides indexes from the user point of view:

for Element of My_Array loop
-- Do something with Element
end loop;


## Aspects

Ada supports various aspects to further refine array declarations.

### Default_Component_Value

We can use this aspect to set an initial value to all the elements of an array type. For example:

type My_Array is array (Positive range <>) of Integer
with Default_Component_Value => 0;


### Component_Size

We can use this aspect to define the component size, in bits, for the elements of an array. Lets say that for hardware optimisation reasons, we want to declare an array of booleans that stores each boolean using 4 bits:

type Boolean_Array is array (1 .. 3) of Boolean
with Component_Size => 4;


### Pack

This aspect has no arguments, and its simply a broad hint to the compiler to squeeze things up as most as possible.

type My_Array is array (1 .. 4) of Integer
with Pack;


### Atomic_Components

The presence of this aspect signifies that the program treats array elements atomically.

type My_Array is array (1 .. 4) of Boolean
with Atomic_Components;